There are two widely used definitions of exacerbation. The Anthonisen definition is based on the presence of one or more of three cardinal symptoms, including. La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) es una entidad que causa una gran 9. eisner md, Anthonisen n, coultas d, et al. 38 | Proceso asistencial integrado del paciente con EPOC exacerbado. Anthonisen NR, Manfreda J, Warren CP, Hershfield ES, Harding GK, Nelson NA.

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Several other important goals of treatment, both clinical and biological, should be considered Table 3. Suplemental oxygen and quality of sleep in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. In such patients, empiric treatment with ciprofloxacin is appropriate. Air pollution and emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Chest, 97pp. Lancet, 1pp. Strain specific immune response to Haemophilus influenzae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Systemic cytokines, clinical and physiological changes in patients hospitalized for exacerbation of COPD.

Bacteria in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Phenomenon or epiphenomenon? Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: Corresponding clinical manifestations are dyspnea, cough, increased sputum production, tenacity and purulence along with worsening gas exchange, which are the cardinal manifestations of an exacerbation.

Optimizing antibiotic selection in treating COPD exacerbations

Again, if the conventional outcome of clinical success would have been measured anthonisn in this study, all the other significant differences in the two arms would have not been discovered. For instance, clinical success in the treatment of exacerbations has been defined as resolution of symptoms to baseline or improvement of symptoms to a degree that no further treatment is required in the opinion of the treating physician.

This classification is prone to error as the site of care is dependent on differences among countries and health care systems as to the threshold for admission, patient and physician preferences etc.


Hypoxic ventilatory response decreases during sleep in normal men. Nocturnal desaturation and serum erythropoietin: Outcome of COPD patients with mild daytime hypoxaemia with or without sleep-related oxygen desaturation.

Optimizing antibiotic selection in treating COPD exacerbations

Interestingly, this classification was not designed to be a classification of severity of exacerbations, but has become so over time. The rate of hospitalization for respiratory tract illness in the 26 weeks was also lower in the gemifloxacin-treated patients than in the clarithromycin treated patients 2. A risk stratification approach has been advocated by several experts for the initial empiric antibiotic treatment of acute exacerbation based on the risk factors discussed above and the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of antibiotics.

A variety of noninfectious and infectious stimuli can induce an acute increase in airway inflammation in COPD, thereby causing the manifestations of exacerbation.

Non-apneic mechanisms of arterial oxygen desaturation during rapid-eye movement sleep. Lancet,pp. Whether antibiotics are of benefit in the treatment of exacerbations when a short course of systemic corticosteroids are co-administered has still not been studied in a large well designed trial.

Sleep, 5pp. Many of these deficiencies athonisen explained by the fact that these trials are performed for regulatory approval of the drugs, therefore are designed for demonstrating noninferiority rather than differences between the two antibiotics.

Although episodes of nocturnal saturation can reasonably be supposed to increase morbidity and mortality in these patients, the diagnostic importance of these desaturations has not been demonstrated.

Curr Opin Infect Dis. Another interesting study, though not included in either meta-analysis, was published in Italian by Allegra and colleagues with anthoniden additional analysis later published in English. You can change the settings or obtain more information by clicking here. Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ofloxacin resulted in a dramatic benefit when compared peoc placebo, reducing mortality and the need for additional antibiotics by Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and COPD.


Health status deterioration in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Appl Physiol, 59pp. Report from the obstructive lung disease in northern Sweden studies.

However, there are limitations to the Anthonisen severity classification. N Engl J Med. Practical application of these biological goals of treatment of exacerbations awaits the development of simple, rapid and reliable measurements of inflammation and infection.

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Antibiotics are associated with lower relapse rates in outpatients with acute exacerbations of COPD. Severity of exacerbation Type of exacerbation Characteristics Severe Type 1 Increased dyspnea, sputum volume and sputum purulence Moderate Type 2 Any 2 of the above 3 cardinal symptoms Mild Type 3 Any 1 of the above 3 cardinal symptoms and 1 or more of the following minor symptoms or signs – Cough. Induction of sleep apnea with negative pressure ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

The GLOBE Gemifloxacin and Long term Outcome of Bronchitis Exacerbations trial was a prospective, double blind, randomized trial that compared a fluoroquinolone, anthinisen, with a macrolide, clarithromycin Wilson et al Furthermore, snthonisen benefit with antibiotics is more marked early in the course of the exacerbation, suggesting that antibiotics hasten resolution of symptoms Allegra et al ; Miravitlles et al Recently, a few well designed placebo controlled and antibiotic comparison trials have been reported.

Though these goals are undoubtedly important, several new observations question the adequacy of these goals. Antibiotics for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.