Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities, Article. orig-research. Bibliometrics Data Bibliometrics. · Citation. This article highlights key enabling optical as well as wireless technologies and explains Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities. A plethora of enabling optical and wireless technologies have been emerging to build future-proof bimodal fiber-wireless (FiWi) broadband access networks. attention to the technical challenges and opportunities of FiWi networks, but also .

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Specifically, in CaDAR, each node informs its neighboring nodes about nrtworks current traffic load of all its outgoing links via periodic LSA messages. This architecture provides cost-effectiveness, bandwidth efficiency, wide coverage, high flexibility, and scalability.

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The obtained results show that shortest path routing using link unavailability as the link cost metric significantly improves the availability of the selected paths. FiWi networks hold great promise to accesss the way we live and work by replacing commuting with teleworking. The throughput-delay performance of FiWi networks for peer-to-peer communications can be further improved by means of direct inter-ONU communications.

Key to the cost-effective deployment and operation of small-cell networks will be the sharing of already existing high-capacity FTTx backhaul infrastructures [ 90 ]. Toward this goal, fiber together with next-generation wireless broadband technologies will play an increasingly vital role in future broadband access networks.

Furthermore, we elaborate on various techniques to provide service differentiation and end-to-end guaranteed QoS and enable QoS continuity across the optical-wireless interface of FiWi broadband access networks. While DSL suffers from severe distance and noise limitations, HFC falls short to efficiently carry data traffic due to its upstream noise and crosstalk accumulation.

By means of simulation it was shown that the maximum throughput performance of CaDAR can be almost doubled if only the gateways deploy an additional second radio while leaving all mesh routers with a single radio. Instead of overprovisioning based on the peak traffic demand, it is desirable to reallocate bandwidth among multiple PONs by utilizing tunable transceivers at the ONUs.

The proposed channel assignment scheme performs load balancing of traffic flows across different channels in order to maintain a similar level of contention on each channel.

Note, however, that FMC does not necessarily imply the physical convergence of networks.

Advances in Optics

It was shown by means of simulation that in terms of both average delay and packet loss RADAR clearly outperforms minimum hop, shortest path, and predictive throughput routing algorithms for opportunoties wide range of failure scenarios such as gateway, ONU, and OLT failures. Figure 1 a shows the fixed wired and wireless access technologies used by broadband subscribers in The power utilities are responsible for the installation of the network infrastructure as well as its operation and maintenance but leave its access open to all e.


Section 2 describes related research topics and defines FiWi access networks as a new research area. More precisely, each wireless user is associated with at most one BS and the distance between a given wireless user and its associated BS must be within the transmission range of that BS. To do so, the residual capacity of each link is assigned as its weight and LSA messages are periodically sent to inform netwlrks other network nodes about the current residual capacity of each link.

Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities – Semantic Scholar

UrbanGustavo C. OW may be deployed as a temporary fibef-wireless for rapidly deployable mobile wireless communication infrastructure, especially in densely populated urban areas. By combining the capacity of optical fiber networks with the ubiquity and mobility of wireless networks, FiWi networks form a powerful platform for the support and creation of emerging as well as future unforeseen applications and services.

Given fber-wireless a significant proportion of the path delay generally occurs at the wireless bottleneck links between gateways and their adjacent wireless mesh routers, the delay performance can be improved by attaching external buffers to these routers.

Especially for event-driven M2M communications, where a large number of devices become activated within a short period of time, traffic-aware random Oppoortunities protocols were shown to provide superior delay performance and robustness [ ]. In a wireless front-end with multiple-radio mesh nodes, it is important to assign the wireless channels efficiently such that contention is reduced.

Integrated routing algorithms compute paths across the optical-wireless interface by taking both the wireless and optical domains into account. Clearly, this figure illustrates that an increasing percentage of broadband subscribers rely on fiber access technologies at the expense of legacy DSL solutions. A unified analytical framework for the throughput-delay performance evaluation of a wide range of FiWi network routing algorithms was developed in [ 6970 ], taking emerging IEEE In the coming era, millions of consumers will produce their own renewable energy and share networke with each other via an integrated and seamless Energy Internetsimilar to the way we use to create and share information online nowadays.

If a failure happens at an AP, the retransmitted signals are protection switched through other optical paths by throwing an optical switch inside the affected AP. Very recently, however, in their seminal work on quantifying the impact of different backhaul topologies mesh versus tree and backhaul technologies e.

According to [ 23 ], the following four architectures can be used. Apart from capacity, one of the major differences between the optical and wireless parts of FiWi access chqllenges is the fact that optical wired links are much more reliable than their wireless counterparts, whose transmission characteristics depend on a number of different parameters.


The proposed optimal routing algorithm yields a bound on the throughput gain in FiWi networks. In the upstream direction, wireless mesh routers forward data packets to one of the wireless gateways, where they are then transmitted to the CO on one of the wavelength channels of the optical backhaul WDM ring, as each PON operates on a separate dynamically allocated wavelength channel.

After elaborating on the rationale behind the Third Industrial Revolution and its underlying Energy Internetwe will describe in more detail how Internet technology and renewable energies are beginning to merge and help realize the vision of the smart grid and create new exciting opportunities opporttunities telecommunication service providers, municipalities, and utilities to roll out dependable low-latency FiWi based smart grid communications infrastructures and split the value chain into multitier business models.

It is also worthwhile to mention that IEEE P, one of the first smart grid standards, does not specify any communications technology of choice for the future smart grid gradually fii between now andthough it is favorable to rely on the exceptionally low latency characteristics of fiber optic facilities, either owned or leased by the smart grid operator, and wireless technologies, where fiber is available to some but not all points in the system [ ].

Unlike the two previous algorithms, the third proposed heuristic also considers the cost of the fiber layout from ONUs to fiw OLT as well as interference in the wireless front-end. The current global crisis is far from unexpected but rather represents a recurrent historical event that is typical for capitalist economies. Toward this end, future broadband access networks must leverage on both optical and wireless technologies and converge them seamlessly, giving rise to FiWi access networks [ 9 ].

In the event of one or more FiWi network failures, the risk list of affected mesh routers is updated accordingly. The framework comprises two parts. FiWi research focuses on the physical PHYMAC, and network layers with the goal to develop and investigate low-cost enabling FiWi technologies as well as layer-2 and layer-3 protocols and algorithms. The considered routing algorithms cover either only the wireless front-end or both the wireless and optical domains of FiWi access networks.

This paper has citations. Specifically, to avoid the electronic bottleneck, the generation of RF signals is best done optically. Wireless networks aimed at meeting specific service requirements while coping with particular transmission impairments and optimizing the utilization of the system resources to ensure cost-effectiveness and satisfaction for the user.

The network is periodically monitored during prespecified intervals.